TEST TUBE BABY/ IVF

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INTRODUCTION

Test tube baby is another name for IVF procedure, where sperm and eggs are collected, fertilized in the laboratory and the resulting healthy embryo is then transferred into the uterus.

In Vitro Fertilization also known as the “Test-tube baby” technique, is where the egg is fertilized outside the body and the embryo(s) are introduced back into the woman’s uterus. IVF is typically suitable for several groups of patients, such as:

 

  • Couples in which the woman has blocked or damaged Fallopian tubes.
  • Women with endometriosis or ovarian disorders.
  • Men with abnormal semen parameters.
  • Couples with unexplained infertility.

 

The woman is given fertility drugs to stimulate her ovaries and the development of several mature follicles. Each of these follicles may contain an egg. The recruitment and development of the follicles is regularly monitored by ultrasound scans and blood tests. This is to ensure that the ovarian stimulation is both safe and effective.

 

Once mature follicles have been produced the eggs are collected using an ultrasound-guided needle through the vaginal wall and into the ovary. This procedure is performed under sedation/local anesthetic. The collected eggs are then placed into culture in the embryology laboratory.

The male partner produces a semen sample on the same day, which is also prepared in the laboratory. The goal of the preparation process is to harvest a sufficient number of motile, normal looking sperm. Measured amounts of the prepared sperm are then cultured overnight, along with the eggs.

 

Next morning the eggs are inspected for signs of fertilization. Those eggs that have normal fertilization are cultured in the laboratory for another 24-48 hours. The development of the embryos is monitored and the patients are apprised of their progress.

Our Fertility Specialist performs the embryo transfer procedure. The selected embryos are introduced, through a fine catheter, into the woman’s uterus. Typically 2-3 embryos are transferred, depending on the patient’s circumstances. The embryo transfer procedure takes no more than half an hour and few women experience any discomfort.

The spare embryos are then assessed in terms of their suitability to be cryopreserved for use, by the couple, in future cycles.

The success rate for IVF is typically 25-30% per treatment cycle. However, the success rate is dependant on many factors, such as the age of the woman.

The first test tube baby was born in 1978 and subsequently over 1.5 million babies have been born through this technique.

 

FOR WHOM IT IS DONE?

If the female has both fallopian tube blocked or absent, if she is suffering from severe endometriosis or the male partner has low sperm count, unexplained infertility or any other reason by which the fertilization which occurs in outer part of the fallopian tubes does not take place.

 

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WHAT IS DONE?

Firstly some fertility drugs are prescribed to female partner to increase the production of eggs. When eggs are produced, it is taken out from her ovaries with the help of fine needle under the guidance of sonography and kept in a dish with an environment mimicking inside of the tube. Then the best quality sperms (given by male partner) are combined with the eggs (we can keep the fertilized egg till day 5 up to Blastocyst transfer) and placed in a machine called incubator.

 

FOR HOW LONG THE COUPLE HAS TO STAY FOR THE TREATMENT?

It will take around 10 days for the process, no need hospital stay as there is no operation and can stay in the city in any hotel nearby the clinic.

 

HOW FREQUENT ARE THE VISITS?

The test tube baby treatment starts mostly from 21st day of the cycle (first visit). Doctor either gives you one packet of subcutaneous injections for 15 to 20 days or he may give you one depot injection and call you after 15 days. After 15/20 days (second visit) one sonography and few blood tests are done to see the status of the uterus lining and ovaries. Doctor starts second group of injection called Gonadotropins which continues for 10-12 days.

 

In second protocol: Physician prescribes one Oral contraceptive for 21 days, preceding the actual treatment cycle. He/She starts the Gonadotrophin injections from second day of menstrual cycle. Usually it goes for 10-12 days.

 

After 7/8 days, sonography and blood tests (if required) starts for evaluation for the growth of the egg containing follicles. When the eggs are matured, HCG is injected and after 36-38 hours, eggs are retrieved. Retrieval of eggs is performed under anesthesia (hence no pain) and it takes normally 5-10 minutes, hence the female partner has to be empty stomach overnight.

 

Semen sample is taken from the male partner and sperms are prepared. Couple is allowed to go usually after 2-3 hours. After 3-5 days, the couple is asked to report for embryo transfer which is a painless procedure. The female partner has to take rest for 2-3 hours and also advised not to do heavy work for few days.

 

Additionally female is given either injections or vaginal capsules for progesterone starting from the day of egg retrieval and till the pregnancy test is done, which has been performed 12-14 days after embryo transfer through the blood test or urine test for beta HCG.

 

CHANCES OF GETTING PREGNANT AT MEDIFIT CLINIC

65% pregnancy rate for 21-30 yrs age, 42.5% for 31-35 yrs age and 22.1% for 36-38 yrs age per embryo transfer.

Overall take home baby rate is around 38.3% per embryo transfer.

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PROCEDURE:

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The procedure IVF techniques may differ depending on the clinic, but usually involves the following steps:

 

Step oneSuppressing the natural menstrual cycle

Women are given a drug (generally in the form of a daily injection) for about two weeks, which suppresses their natural menstrual cycle.

 

Step twoSuper ovulation

Fertility drugs containing the fertility hormone FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), are administered to the woman. FSH makes the ovaries produce more eggs than normal. Vaginal ultrasound scans can monitor the process in the ovaries.

 

Step threeRetrieving the eggs

The eggs are collected through a minor surgical procedure known as “follicular aspiration”. A very thin needle is inserted through the vagina and into an ovary. The needle – which is connected to a suction device – sucks the eggs out. This process is repeated for each ovary.

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