Sialolithiasis is a Pathological condition, Characterized by the presence of one or more calcified stones within the salivary glands itself or within its duct
There are thought to be aseries of stage that lead to be formation of Calculi (lithogenesis)
- Abnormality in calcium metabolism
- Reduced salivary flow rate
- Altered acidity (pH) of saliva caused Oropharyngeal infections
- It is generally believed that initially a small and soft nidus forms within the salivary glands or its ducts, due to some in known reason
- The nidus is made up of mucin, protein, bacteria and desquamated epithelial cells.
- Once a small nidus forms, it allow concentric lamellar crystallization to occur due to precipitation of calcium salts
- A sialolith increases in size with time as layer after layer of salts become deposited
- It is important to note that the formation sialolith is more common in relation to the submandibular gland and its ducts.
- Age: middle aged adults
- Sex: Slight predilection for males
- Sites: 70% sub mandibular gland
23% parotid gland 4% Sublingual and minor salivary glands. The Chief complaints are intermittent pain, discomfort and recurrent submandibular swelling especially during meals the pain be felt like the pulling, drawing or stinging sensation in mild cases.
However swelling increases and the pain can be very severe and stabbing type
Clinical symptoms are more obviously felt when the patients take sour food.
Sialolith are usually found unilaterally.
SIALOLITHIASIS DIAGNOSIS/ INVESTIGATIONS
- Radiography: Panoramic Radiograph
- Ultrasonography and CT scan
SIALOLITHIASIS TREATMENT (MANAGEMENT OF PREVENTIONS):
Small stones in distal part of the duct can be removed through the orifice by digital manipulation only
- Minor salivary glands stones are treated by simple surgical excision