- Positive mood (euphoria, energy, and sexual arousal),
- Negative mood (irritability, mood swings, violent feelings, and hostility), and
- Cognitive impairment (distractibility, forgetfulness, and confusion).
Anabolic steroids have been associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms, although the limited research literature in this area does not yet prove a causal link.
AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE
Empirical studies in both animals and humans have shown an increase in aggression in both males and females exposed to anabolic steroids
Psychotic symptoms are common in persons using Anabolic Steroids.
Clinical presentations include grandiose and paranoid delusional states that often occur in the context of a psychotic or manic episode. Symptoms usually resolve in a few weeks if steroid use is discontinued, although may persist for as long as a month even if adequately treated with antipsychotics.
Self-report questionnaires and informant histories have been used to retrospectively assess the personality type of anabolic steroid misusers before their first use. Such work suggests that they start out with personalities similar to those of non-using bodybuilders, but develop abnormal personality traits that could be attributed to steroid misuse
During steroid use, individuals were more likely to score higher on paranoia, schizoid, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic and passive aggressive personality profiles. Other studies have suggested that antisocial personality disorder is slightly more likely among anabolic steroid users than among non-users
MOOD AND ANXIETY DISORDERS
Affective disorders have long been recognised as a complication of anabolic steroid use. Case reports describe both hypomania and mania, along with irritability, elation, recklessness, racing thoughts and feelings of power and invincibility that did not meet the criteria for mania/hypomania.
Of 53 bodybuilders who used anabolic steroids, 27 (51%) reported unspecified mood disturbance.
There is also evidence that ssion can be associated with withdrawing from steroids.