KADAKNATH BREED CHICKEN
Kadaknath is an important indigenous breed of poultry inhabitating vast areas of Western Madhya Pradesh mainly the Jhabua and Dhar Districts and adjoining areas of Gujarat and Rajasthan. But because of indiscriminate crossbreeding with RIR and other breeds the pure Kadaknath birds are very rarely available in Dhar and adjoining areas of Gujarat and Rajasthan. At present the Kadaknath birds are mainly available in Jhabua District of Western Madhya Pradesh. The Jhabua District is situated in the Western part of the Madhya Pradesh in between the latitudes (N) 20o 50′ and 23o 40′ and longitude (E) 74o 30′ and 75o 16′. The mean altitude ranges from 450 to 700 m above mean sea level. The District covers 0.68 million ha geographical area. The climate is hot semi-arid with an annual rainfall of 500 to 1000 mm. The rainfall is erratic and annual variation of rainfall is a constant feature. The minimum average temperature is 10oC and the maximum average temperature reaches up to 41 to 43oC.
WHAT IS KADAKNATH?
Kadaknath is only Black Meat Chicken (B.M.C.) Breed of India. It is a native bird of Madhya Pradesh, reared mainly by the tribal communities of Bhil and Bhilala. The commonly available colours of kadaknath are jet-black, pencilled and golden. The bird is very popular among the adiwasis mainly due to its adaptability to the local environment, disease resistance, tasty meat quality, texture and flavour. Though the flesh of this breed is black, it is considered not only a delicacy of distinctive taste, but also of medicinal value.
Protein content in kadaknath is higher than 25% in an ordinary bird it varies between 18-20%.
Research has shown that this species has lower cholesterol (0.73-1.05%) than white chicken(13-25%)
High levels of 18 amino acids out of which 8 are essential for the human and rich in hormone.
Vitamins B1,B2,B6, B12, C and E, niacin, protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, iron, nicotinic acids, etc.
Kadaknath has special medicinal value in homeopathy and a particular nervous disorder.The tribal uses kadaknath blood in the treatment of chronic disease in human beings and its meat as aphrodisiac (Believed to infuse vigor in Make).Experts says that Viagra or Sildenafil Citrate is basically a vasodilator designed for increasing blood flow to the heart and the melanin pigmant in kadaknath does the same.kadaknath chicken has a peculiar effectiveness in treating women’s discuss, sterility, Menoxenic(abnormal menstruation), habitual abortion.
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KADAKNATH POULTRY FARMING:
Gramin Vikas Trust (GVT) has identified Poultry farming of Kadaknath breed as potential
source of income generation in the resource poor region of Jhabua and Dhar districts. GVT’s
Jhabua team is working since long on livelihood generation of poor tribal families in Jhabua
through Kadaknath poultry farming. Presently, GVT Jhabua is operating more than 100
Kadaknath poultry farms under different projects like NABARD WADI and NAIP. While
working on micro components of the project, GVT has come across several challenges in up
scaling of this successful intervention. As part of establishment of robust backward and forward
linkages of the project, it was observed that Kadaknath breed of poultry is not a natural brooder
and thus the low natural hatching rate of this breed is hampering the supply of chicks to the
poultry farmers. Although GVT has surmounted this problem by facilitating the farmers in
procurement of chicks from KVK hatchery but it was felt that this arrangement is affecting the
efficiency of these poultry farms as farmers have to repeatedly come to KVK for booking,
payment, procurement etc and wait for chicks as per the schedule of KVK. It was this plight of
farmers that led GVT to think on the line of establishing small scale hatchery at the village/
cluster level so that poultry farmers could get hassle free supply of Kadaknath chicks on regular
- Day-old chicks are bluish to black with irregular dark stripes over the back.
- Adult plumage varies from silver and gold-spangled to bluish-black without any spangling.
- The skin, beak, shanks, toes and soles of feet are slate like in colour. The comb, wattles and tongue are purple. Most of the internal organs show intense black colouration, which is pronounced in trachea, thoracic and abdominal air-sacs, gonads and at the base of the heart and mesentery.
- The blood is darker than normal. The black pigment is the result of melanin deposition.
Average adult body weight:
-Cock : 1.5 kg
-Hens: 1.0 kg.
Annual egg production: 80.
The eggs are light brown in colour.
Average egg weight: 46.8 gms.
CULTURAL / ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE:
The original name of the breed is Kalamasi, meaning a fowl with black flesh, which, though not very appealing to the eye, is very tasty. The bird is resistant to diseases in its natural habitat in free range conditions but is more susceptible to Marek’s disease under intensive rearing conditions. Kadaknath chicken is said to contain many kinds of amino acids and vitamins and are a powerful source of protein.