FIVE TYPES OF EXERCISE
AEROBIC EXERCISE – is one in which large amounts of oxygen are required continually for an extended period of time. Aerobic exercise are vigorous, continually, and rhythmic. Improves cardiorespiratory endurance.
ANAEROBIC EXERCISE – is one in which the body’s demand for oxygen is greater than what is available during exertion. Improves muscular strength and endurance.
ISOMETRIC EXERCISE – is one in which a muscles tightened for five to eight seconds and there is no body movement. Pressing the palms of hands together.
ISOTONIC EXERCISE – is one in which a muscle moves a moderate amount of weight eight to fifteen times through total range of motion. Improves muscle strength and endurance.
ISOKINETIC EXERCISE – is an exercise using special machines that provide weight resistance through the full range of motion. Improves muscle strength, endurance, and flexibility.
There are different types of exercises that can be used to evaluate program plans, procedures and capabilities.
- Walkthroughs, workshops or orientation seminars
- Tabletop exercises
- Functional exercises
- Full-scale exercises
Walkthroughs, workshops and orientation seminars are basic training for team members. They are designed to familiarize team members with emergency response, business continuity and crisis communications plans and their roles and responsibilities as defined in the plans.
Tabletop exercises are discussion-based sessions where team members meet in an informal, classroom setting to discuss their roles during an emergency and their responses to a particular emergency situation. A facilitator guides participants through a discussion of one or more scenarios. The duration of a tabletop exercise depends on the audience, the topic being exercised and the exercise objectives. Many tabletop exercises can be conducted in a few hours, so they are cost-effective tools to validate plans and capabilities.
Functional exercises allow personnel to validate plans and readiness by performing their duties in a simulated operational environment. Activities for a functional exercise are scenario-driven, such as the failure of a critical business function or a specific hazard scenario. Functional exercises are designed to exercise specific team members, procedures and resources (e.g. communications, warning, notifications and equipment set-up).
A full-scale exercise is as close to the real thing as possible. It is a lengthy exercise which takes place on location using, as much as possible, the equipment and personnel that would be called upon in a real event. Full-scale exercises are conducted by public agencies. They often include participation from local businesses.
DEVELOPING AN EXERCISE PROGRAM
Develop an exercise program beginning with an assessment of needs and current capabilities. Review the risk assessment and program performance objectives. Conduct a walkthrough or orientation session to familiarize team members with the preparedness plans. Review roles and responsibilities and ensure everyone is familiar with incident management. Identify probable scenarios for emergencies and business disruption. Use these scenarios as the basis for tabletop exercises. As the program matures, consider holding a functional exercise. Contact local emergency management officials to determine if there is an opportunity to participate in a full-scale exercise within your community.
Exercises should be evaluated to determine whether exercise objectives were met and to identify opportunities for program improvement. A facilitated “hot wash” discussion held at the end of an exercise is a great way to solicit feedback and identify suggestions for improvement. Evaluation forms are another way for participants to provide comments and suggestions. An after-action report that documents suggestions for improvement should be compiled following the exercise and copies should be distributed to management and others. Suggestions for improvement should be addressed through the organization’s corrective action program.
4 TYPES OF EXERCISE
Endurance, or aerobic, activities increase your breathing and heart rate. They keep your heart, lungs, and circulatory system healthy and improve your overall fitness. Building your endurance makes it easier to carry out many of your everyday activities.
- Brisk walking or jogging
- Yard work (mowing, raking, digging)
Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Even small increases in strength can make a big difference in your ability to stay independent and carry out everyday activities, such as climbing stairs and carrying groceries. These exercises also are called “strength training” or “resistance training.”
- Lifting weights
- Using a resistance band
- Using your own body weight
Balance exercises help prevent falls, a common problem in older adults. Many lower-body strength exercises also will improve your balance.
- Standing on one foot
- Heel-to-toe walk
- Tai Chi
exercises stretch your muscles and can help your body stay limber. Being flexible gives you more freedom of movement for other exercises as well as for your everyday activities.
- Shoulder and upper arm stretch
- Calf stretch