ABSTRACT OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES
The alcoholic content in a beverage is determined relative to its proof, which is twice the alcohol content. For example, a glass of 24 proof wine would be 12 percent alcohol. A drink that is 40 percent alcohol would be 80 proof. There are three main categories of alcoholic drinks: beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
Beer making has a long history. As far back as 2000 B.C., the Code of Hammurabi set standards for beer production and behavioral codes pertaining to drunkenness. Beer is made from grain, malt, hops, yeast, and water. Historically, beer was full-bodied and quite nutritious. The beer of today is highly filtered and of negligible nutritious value, although calorie-laden. The alcohol content of beer in the United States is generally between three and six percent. Grain drinks with a higher level of alcohol are called malts, lager, or ale.
Red Wine also has a long history. Historically, many monasteries have been known for their wine production. A number of fruits can be used to make wine, including grapes, berries, or peaches. The fruits are crushed, and yeast may be added. In general, the darker the color of wine, the longer the aging process. American wine is approximately 9 to 14 percent alcohol. Fortified wines are those with an alcohol content higher than 14 percent. Such wines contain added alcohol or brandy to increase the alcohol content to approximately 20 percent.
The remaining major category of alcoholic drink is distilled spirits, often called “hard liquor.” The natural fermentation process stops when the alcohol content reaches 14 percent. However, the discovery of the distillation process by the Arabs lead to the use of this type of beverage with its higher alcoholic content. Distillation involves heating the substance of choice and capturing the steam that is released. When cooled, the steam contains less water and more alcohol. A number of different products are used for distilled spirits including corn (bourbon), potatoes (vodka), sugar cane (rum), wine (brandy), and malts/grains (scotch).
It is difficult for many people to ascertain exactly how much alcohol is found in a drink. A good rule of thumb is that a 12-ounce, 10 proof beer is equal to a five-ounce glass of 24 proof wine, which is equal to a 1 1/2 ounce shot (jigger) of 80 proof hard liquor (distilled spirits). Each of these drinks contains 0.6 ounces of alcohol. To determine how much ethanol (alcohol) is in a drink, divide the proof by half, and then divide that number by 100. Multiply the result by the number of ounces in the drink. Remember that proof is twice the percent of alcohol.
If you know the percent of the drink, step 1 (finding the percent) can be eliminated.
Other types of alcohol are not safe to drink. They can be toxic and even fatal if consumed. They include:
- Butyl alcohol, or butanol. This type of alcohol, derived from butane, is commonly used in products such as adhesives and varnishes.
- Methyl alcohol, also known as methanol or wood alcohol. It is used in the manufacture of formaldehyde and as industrial solvent. During Prohibition wood alcohol gained notoriety as a mixing agent with ethyl alcohol to make liquor. Several people became blind after drinking this toxic mixture, as methyl alcohol causes swelling of the optic nerve, an irreversible condition.
- Isopropyl alcohol, also known as rubbing alcohol, is a common household product. It is used as a disinfectant and as an ingredient in cologne and after-shave lotion.
- Ethylene glycol, also known as antifreeze, is the most harmful type of alcohol. It should never be consumed, as it is deadly.
TYPES OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES
The variety of alcohol types, different brands, and mixing ingredients is sometimes overwhelming. SYRUP Magazine makes it easy for you to gain a clear understanding of each type of alcohol and mixing ingredients by breaking them down to their basic classes: Spirits, Liqueurs, Wines & Champagnes, Beers, and Mixers.
- GIN – a colorless alcoholic beverage made by distilling or redistilling rye or other grain spirits and adding juniper berries or aromatics such as anise, caraway seeds, or angelica root as flavoring.
- VODKA – originally distilled from fermented wheat mash but now also made from a mash of rye, corn, or potatoes.
- RUM – distilled from cane juice, or from the scummings of the boiled juice, or from treacle or molasses, or from the lees of former distillations. Also, sometimes used colloquially as a generic or a collective name for intoxicating liquor.
- WHISKEY – distilled from grain, potatoes, etc., especially in Scotland, Ireland, and the United States. In the United States, whisky is generally distilled from maize, rye, or wheat, but in Scotland and Ireland it is often made from malted barley.
- TEQUILA – Alcoholic liquor distilled from the fermented juice of the Central American century plant Agave tequilana.
- BRANDY – Alcoholic liquor distilled from wine or fermented fruit juice.
LIQUEURS (FLAVORED SPIRITS)
Liqueurs are flavored spirits prepared by infusing certain woods, fruits, or flowers, in either water or alcohol, and adding sugar, etc. Others are distilled from aromatic or flavoring agents.
WINES & CHAMPAGNE
- RED WINE – wine having a red color derived from skins of dark-colored grapes.
- WHITE WINE – any wine of a clear, transparent color, bordering on white, as Madeira, sherry, Lisbon, etc.; — distinguished from wines of a deep red color, as port and Burgundy.
- ROSE WINE – pinkish table wine from red grapes whose skins were removed after fermentation began.
- CHAMPAGNE – a sparkling white wine made from a blend of grapes, especially Chardonnay and pinot, produced in Champagne.
- SPARKLING WINE – any of various effervescent wines, such as champagne, produced by a process involving fermentation in the bottle.
- VERMOUTH – a sweet or dry fortified wine flavored with aromatic herbs and used chiefly in mixed drinks.
- LAGER – a type of beer of German origin that contains a relatively small amount of hops and is aged from six weeks to six months to allow sedimentation.
Alcohol, the ordinary name for a substance called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, or pure spirits (chemical name, ethanol). Ethyl Alcohol, or ethanol, is formed as wine or hard cider by the fermentation of any sweet fruit juice. An alcoholic drink is any beverage that contains ethyl alcohol in intoxicating quantities. The amount of alcohol may be as little as 2 percent, as in beers, and or as much as 68 percent as in absinthe.
Alcoholic content in most alcoholic beverages is measured in proof, which is half of the actual content of alcohol content of alcohol in the drink. An example is a 90 proof whiskey actually only contains 45 percent alcohol. Beer is one of the beverages containing the lowest proof. They range from 2 to 6 percent. Wines have anywhere from 14 percent or less. Fortified wines which have other alcoholic beverages included will be in a higher range.
Alcoholism is a disease in which the drinking of alcoholic beverages becomes a compulsion and produces characteristic symptoms in the individual. Scientists do not know the true link between alcohol and the alcoholic. Investigations have found that alcoholics use alcohol as a means of escape for the day to day pressures of everyday life. They feel that they cannot cope without the alcohol in their system. Not all alcoholics are “drunks”. An alcoholic can come from any walk of life and be of any age and ethnic group. What signifies an alcoholic is his need to consume alcohol. Some alcoholics don’t even like the taste of alcohol but will still continue to consume the drink in order to cope with life.
Alcohol is a depressant which acts on the control centers of the brain to depress them.
A common picture of acute intoxication is of:
- Unsteady gait
- Possible hallucinations
A chronic drinker may experience more severe side effects or even death. One of the side effects is:
Confusion; hallucinations; development of various kinds of paralyses; development of gaps in memory in which the individual will fill in by telling fantastic experiences in a most plausible way; he may also experience mental illnesses; he may also develop organic diseases – one being the affliction to the liver.
Two out of 3 murders, 1 of 3 rapes, 1 out of 3 suicides, 2 out of 5 assaults, and 3 out of 5 cases of child abuse are connected to the use of alcohol. One out of 2 deaths by fire and drowning are alcohol related, as are 2 out of 5 home accidents. 25,000 American’s die in alcohol related crashes every year, or 1 out of 2 fatalities.
One out of 2 in-patients in our city hospitals are there because of an alcohol related problem and 40,000 young adults are disfigured by alcohol related car accidents each year.
“If alcohol would have been invented today, you would need a prescription to obtain it or perhaps it would be outlawed completely,” Teen challenge of Southern California.
DISADVANTAGES OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES
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Add the flour and the Irish whiskey they didn’t make but had to reinforce your hands and just smooth them out. And there are methamphetamine addicts when they have hepatitis B or C both illnesses which you have to prepare for that period of time.